Problems and Solutions of Sewage Treatment Design in Villages and Towns

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With the implementation of the drinking water safety project in villages and towns, the drinking water conditions of rural residents have been greatly improved, and the discharge of domestic sewage is increasing. The environmental problems of villages and towns have not been widely paid attention to, lack of sufficient sewage treatment facilities and sewage collection pipe network, and the task of domestic sewage treatment is very arduous. The treatment mode of domestic sewage in villages and towns is different from that of urban sewage treatment, which can not be copied and copied mechanically. With the revolution of rural toilets, the collection and treatment of sewage in villages and towns need to be solved urgently.

The sewage discharged from villages and towns mainly includes residents' washing and bathing wastewater, kitchen wastewater, and sewage generated by flushing toilets. In some areas, there are livestock and poultry breeding wastewater, wastewater from small family workshops in villages and towns, wastewater from agricultural product processing, and agricultural non-point source pollution. The water quality of sewage is single, the content of organic matter and nitrogen and phosphorus is higher, the concentration is lower than that of urban sewage, the biodegradability is better, and it does not contain toxic and refractory substances. The water discharge is uneven, and the daily variation coefficient is generally 3.0~5.0, which is characterized by concentrated discharge in the early, middle and late hours. At present, most rural areas lack sewage collection pipe networks. With the advancement of toilet reform, sewage has nowhere to be discharged and can only be discharged into farmland or rivers nearby, resulting in increasing river pollution in rural areas.

Domestic sewage discharged from villages and towns is generally related to the degree of local economic development and living habits. The area with high economic level adopts perfect sanitary ware and uses more water, mainly including shower washing, kitchen and toilet drainage. In areas with low economic level, dry toilets are basically used, and water flushing is less used. The discharged domestic sewage is mainly shower washing and kitchen drainage, which is mainly scattered discharge. The collection of such sewage involves indoor renovation.

The fecal sewage discharged from the toilet is generally high in organic matter and nitrogen and phosphorus, and the shower washing wastewater mainly contains organic matter such as synthetic detergents, generally does not contain toxic and refractory organic matter, and has good biodegradability. The water quality and water quantity fluctuate greatly in different periods. Generally, there are peak periods in the morning, middle and evening, and there is less water at night. In some places, there is basically no sewage generated at night, and the sewage discharge is discontinuous. The daily variation coefficient is generally between 3 and 5, and some regional coefficients with large changes can be taken to more than 10. If there is tourism business in the village and town, the water quality and water quantity will vary greatly with the seasons, and the design should be considered comprehensively.

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